What is nitration reaction of phenol?

What is nitration reaction of phenol?

Nitration of Phenols When phenol is treated with concentrated nitric acid, the nitration results in the formation of 2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol (commonly called picric acid).

What is the mechanism of nitration of benzene?

The mechanism for nitration of benzene: Step 1: Nitric acid accepts a proton from sulphuric acid and then dissociates to form nitronium ion. Step 2: The nitronium ion acts as an electrophile in the process which further reacts with benzene to form an arenium ion.

What happens when phenol reacts benzene?

Benzene diazonium chloride on reaction with phenol in a basic medium gives p-Hydroxy azobenzene. This is an example of the coupling reaction.

Why nitration of phenol is easier than benzene?

Now the presence of OH group in phenol, increases the electron density at ortho and para position by +R effect. Since the electron density is more in phenol than in benzene, therefore, phenol is more easily nitrated than benzene.

Which is electrophile in nitration of phenol?

The attacking species in nitration reaction is nitronium ion which is an electrophile.

What is the reaction of phenol?

Because phenol is acidic, it reacts with sodium hydroxide (a strong base) to form the phenoxide anion and water. When a base interacts with an acid, sometimes we call this a deprotonation reaction due to the removal of the proton (hydrogen).

What is nitration explain nitration of benzene?

Nitration happens when one (or more) of the hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring is replaced by a nitro group, NO2. Benzene is treated with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature not exceeding 50°C. The mixture is held at this temperature for about half an hour.

Which is the electrophile in the nitration of benzene?

nitronium ion
The electrophile is the “nitronium ion” or the “nitryl cation”, NO+2. This is formed by reaction between the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid.

What is the major product in nitration of phenol?

o-nitron p-nitrophenol
When phenol is treated with dilute nitric acid at room temper ed with dilute nitric acid at room temperature a mixture of o-nitron p-nitrophenol is obtained and o-nitrophenol is major product.

How is phenol converted into benzene?

Phenol can be converted to benzene by using strong reducing agents like Zn dust with strong heating. When strongly heated,the phenol gets converted into phenoxide ion and proton thus released accepts an electron from Zn forming H radical.

Why does phenol react faster than benzene?

The increased reactivity compared to benzene is due to the lone pair of p-orbital electrons on the oxygen atom in the phenol group. The electron pair is delocalised into the ring structure, activating the ring. This increases the electron density of the molecule, which induces dipoles in the bromine molecule.

Is phenol more easily oxidised than benzene?

(i) The ring of phenol is more easily oxidised than that of benzene. (ii) Phenol is nitrated more easily than benzene. The resonating structures for phenol are: (i) The OH group is strongly activating group and increases the electron density on benzene and making the ring of phenol very electron rich.

What is nitration of phenols?

Nitration of Phenols. Phenols upon treatment with dilute nitric acid undergo nitration at low temperature (298 K) to give a mixture of ortho and para nitrophenols. The mixture formed is further separated into ortho and para nitrophenols by steam distillation on the basis of their volatility.

Why is phenol more reactive than benzene in nitration?

Nitration of aromatic compounds like benzene , phenol undergoes Electrophilic aromatic substitubsttitution reaction Phenol is more reactive than benzene, which is in turn shows greater rate than nitro benzene.

What is the mechanism for nitration of benzene?

The mechanism for the nitration of benzene is: The curly arrows are used to indicate the movement of an electron pair in a reaction mechanism. The [math] ion then reacts with the [math] to reform the [math]. Benzene will only react with halogens in the presence of a halogen carrier, such as [math] or [math] for bromine.

How do you separate nitrophenol from nitric acid?

Phenol gives a mixture of 2-nitro and 4-nitrophenols on nitration with dilute nitric acid. The mixture of nitrophenols so obtained is separated using steam distillation. Both these products show hydrogen bonding.