What effect does Pneumolysin have in humans?

Pneumolysin is a thiol-activated, membrane-damaging, multifunctional toxin and a known virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The toxin can interfere with the functioning of both cellular and soluble components of the human immune system which protects against pneumococcal infection.

What effect does Pneumolysin have in humans?

Pneumolysin is a thiol-activated, membrane-damaging, multifunctional toxin and a known virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The toxin can interfere with the functioning of both cellular and soluble components of the human immune system which protects against pneumococcal infection.

Is Pneumolysin a hemolysin?

Pneumolysin was found to be produced by 112 of 113 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and to be an intracellular hemolysin.

How is Streptococcus pneumoniae treated?

Treatment. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are treated with antibiotics. There is an increasing problem of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria developing drug resistance due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics.

What does pneumolysin bind?

Pneumolysin binds to the mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC-1) leading to anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced pneumococcal survival.

Is pneumolysin an endotoxin?

A major exotoxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae is pneumolysin (24). Pneumolysin is a multifunctional bacterial cytoplasmic protein of 53 kDa with a wide range of cytotoxic and proinflammatory properties, and it is an important determinant of pneumococcal virulence (28).

How does pneumococcus cause disease?

Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). People with pneumococcal disease can spread the bacteria to others when they cough or sneeze. Symptoms of pneumococcal infection depend on the part of the body affected.

What does Pneumolysin bind?

How does Streptococcus pneumoniae evade the immune system?

In order to evade complement attack, the pneumococcus has evolved multiple virulence factors that contribute to complement resistance. A thick polysaccharide capsule acts in conjunction with several surface proteins and toxins to limit complement activation and/or accelerate complement products decay.

How is Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosis?

Definitively diagnosing Streptococcus pneumoniae infection generally relies on isolating the organism from blood or other normally sterile body sites. Tests are also available to detect capsular polysaccharide antigen in body fluids.

Is Pneumolysin an exotoxin?

How do Exotoxins work?

An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell.