What impact did the Mongols have on the Silk Roads?

Ghengis Khan and his Mongol armies rose to power at the end of the twelfth century, at a moment when few opposing rulers could put up much resistance to them. The vast Mongol empire he created stretched from China to Europe, across which the Silk Routes functioned as efficient lines of communication as well as trade.

What impact did the Mongols have on the Silk Roads?

Ghengis Khan and his Mongol armies rose to power at the end of the twelfth century, at a moment when few opposing rulers could put up much resistance to them. The vast Mongol empire he created stretched from China to Europe, across which the Silk Routes functioned as efficient lines of communication as well as trade.

What are the four major modes of subsistence?

Beyond this basic division, anthropologists recognize four general types of food system known as modes of subsistence. The four modes of subsistence are foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture.

What are the two types of pastoralism?

There are essentially two forms of pastoralism. They are known as nomadism and transhumance. Pastoral nomads follow a seasonal migratory pattern that can vary from year to year. The timing and destinations of migrations are determined primarily by the needs of the herd animals for water and fodder.

What does Dr Shaffer mean by southernization?

Shaffer’s thesis in the article is that southernization caused everywhere from Islam to China to become prosperous through trade. What does the author mean by “Southernization”? The author means the spread of things from China out to other regions, such as the middle east and Malaysia.

What are the types of pastoralism?

There are several types of pastoralism—the first is nomadic whereby humans move along with their herds in search of grasslands to grade; then there are the herders who migrate seasonally also in search of pastures new; and lastly there is the branch of pastoralism called transhumance, which is similar to the herders in …

In what ways did pastoral societies differ from their agricultural counterparts?

in what ways did pastoral societies differ from their agricultural counterparts? Pastoral societies were generally less productive than their agricultural counterparts because of their need for large grazing areas, this supported smaller populations. This also created smaller more scatter villages, and towns.

Which of the following was an advantage of pastoralism?

One of the greatest advantages of pastoralism is that it places no burden on groundwater resources. It requires no irrigation and, during the rainy season, animals can often obtain all their water needs from the plants that they ingest.

What does pastoralist mean?

Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry where domesticated animals known as livestock are released onto large vegetated outdoor lands (pastures) for grazing, historically by nomadic people who moved around with their herds. The species involved include cattle, camels, goats, yaks, llamas, reindeer, horse and sheep.

What is a pastoral life?

A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. A pastoral is a work of this genre, also known as bucolic, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd.

Why do pastoralist groups practiced transhumance?

Traditionally in the American West, shepherds spent most of the year with a sheep herd, searching for the best forage in each season. They maintain many sheep. In California, the home ranch tends to have more private land, largely because of the legacy of the Spanish land grant system.

What is the difference between pastoralists and agriculturalists?

People in pastoral communities often live semi-nomadic lives. They build shelters, but they are often rudimentary and easily movable. Rather than living a semi-nomadic life herding animals, agriculturalists instead live more sedentary lifestyles and plant large quantities of domesticated plants.

Where is pastoralism practiced?

Some of the countries where nomadic pastoralism is still practiced include Kenya, Iran, India, Somalia, Algeria, Nepal, Russia, and Afghanistan.

Where is pastoralism most common?

Of the estimated 30–40 million nomadic pastoralists worldwide, most are found in central Asia and the Sahel region of North and West Africa, such as Fulani, Tuaregs, and Toubou, with some also in the Middle East, such as traditionally Bedouins, and in other parts of Africa, such as Nigeria and Somalia.

How did southernization lead to Westernization?

Southernization tied the world together and led to the spread of resources, goods and ideas that made the globalized trade networks and modern world possible. Without access to steel, the compass, printing, gunpowder, cotton, sugar and spices from Asia, Westernization by Europeans would never have happened.

How did the Berbers impact world history?

In what ways did the Xiongnu, Arabs, Turks, and Berbers make an impact on world history? Xiongnu: They had a revolution in nomadic life and transformed fragmented and egalitarian societies. Berbers: They build Almoravid Empire (1000s) in Morocco. They conquered Spain and brought sophisticated Islamic culture there.

Do you agree with Lynda Shaffer’s thesis on the importance of southernization and Westernization Why?

They couldn’t grow many crops associated with the trade; southernization in the climate they inhabited was difficult until they took over the colonies. Do you agree with her thesis? Why or why not? Yes, because it makes sense that Southernization was the bedrock of Westernization.

Why are pastoralists important?

The pastoral system also plays a key role in feeding the population through the supply of milk and meat and in agricultural production through the provision of manure and animal traction. It helps to generate currency through the export of live cattle and products, such as leather and hides.

What is the significance of southernization?

By 1200, the process of southernization had created a prosperous south from China to the Islamic Mediterranean, based on mathematics, the pioneering of new ocean routes and ‘discoveries’ of bullion and crops such as sugar, cotton and spices.

What is Lynda Shaffer’s thesis argument in the article?

Shaffer’s thesis in the article is that southernization caused everywhere from Islam to China to become prosperous through trade.

Why is transhumance practiced?

The transhumant system is practised in order to locate the best herbage resources from pastures and grasslands. There are also well recognized pastoral tribes who practise a complete transhumance, moving from one place to another on traditional migratory routes. The dates of migration have traditionally been fixed.

What is an example of a pastoral society?

A pastoral society is a nomadic group of people who travel with a herd of domesticated animals, which they rely on for food. Examples of pastoralists are the Bedouins from Saudi Arabia, the Maasai from East Africa, and the Sami from Scandinavia.